European borders: the curious case of Baarle-Nassau

European borders are the product of centuries of warfare, dynasty changes, trades and negotiations. This also means that they can over time become rather complicated, in particular in more populous areas. The small Belgian exclave town Baarle-Hertog in the Netherlands is probably one of the more complicated border constructions in the world in this aspect.

Baarle-Hertog is a piece – or several small pieces actually – of Belgian territory entirely surrounded by the Dutch town of Baarle-Nassau.

Map of Baarle-Nassau and Baarle-Hertog
Territorial map of Baarle-Nassau and Baarle-Hertog. Source: Wikimedia.